Polyprotein Processing as a Determinant for in Vitro Activity of Semliki Forest Virus Replicase
AbstractSemliki Forest virus (SFV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that induces membrane invaginations (spherules) in host cells. These harbor the viral replication complexes (RC) that synthesize viral RNA. Alphaviruses have four replicase or nonstructural proteins (nsPs), nsP1–4, expressed as polyprotein P1234. An early RC, which synthesizes minus-strand RNA, is formed by the polyprotein P123 and the polymerase nsP4. Further proteolytic cleavage results in a late RC consisting of nsP1–4 and synthesizing plus strands. Here, we show that only the late RCs are highly active in RNA synthesis in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that active RCs can be isolated from both virus-infected cells and cells transfected with the wild-type replicase in combination with a plasmid expressing a template RNA. When an uncleavable polyprotein P123 and polymerase nsP4 were expressed together with a template, high levels of minus-strand RNA were produced in cells, but RCs isolated from these cells were hardly active in vitro. Furthermore, we observed that the uncleavable polyprotein P123 and polymerase nsP4, which have previously been shown to form spherules even in the absence of the template, did not replicate an exogenous template. Consequently, we hypothesize that the replicase proteins were sequestered in spherules and were no longer able to recruit a template. View Full-Text
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Pietilä, M.K.; Albulescu, I.C.; Hemert, M.J.; Ahola, T. Polyprotein Processing as a Determinant for in Vitro Activity of Semliki Forest Virus Replicase. Viruses 2017, 9, 292.
Pietilä MK, Albulescu IC, Hemert MJ, Ahola T. Polyprotein Processing as a Determinant for in Vitro Activity of Semliki Forest Virus Replicase. Viruses. 2017; 9(10):292.Chicago/Turabian Style
Pietilä, Maija K.; Albulescu, Irina C.; Hemert, Martijn J. van; Ahola, Tero. 2017. "Polyprotein Processing as a Determinant for in Vitro Activity of Semliki Forest Virus Replicase." Viruses 9, no. 10: 292.