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Viruses 2016, 8(9), 245; doi:10.3390/v8090245

Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women

1
Viral Oncology Lab, University of Manchester, St Mary’s Hospital, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
2
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi, Nairobi 00202, Kenya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Louis M. Mansky
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 5 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015)
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Abstract

The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV−ve) Kenyan women. Patient sociodemographic details were recorded by structured questionnaire and these data analysed with respect to HIV status, human papillomavirus (HPV) type (Papilocheck®) and cytology. This showed 22/113 (19.5%) of LBC’s from HIV+ve patients were positive for HTLV-1 compared to 4/111 (3.6%) of those from HIV−ve women (p = 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) = 6.42 (2.07–26.56)). Only 1/37 (2.7%) of HIV+ve and none of the 44 HIV−ve ICC samples were positive for HTLV-1. There was also a significant correlation between HTLV-1 infection, numbers of sexual partners (p < 0.05) and smoking (p < 0.01). Using this unique method, these data suggest an unexpectedly high prevalence of HTLV-1 DNA in HIV+ve women in this geographical location. However, the low level of HTLV-1 detected in HIV+ve ICC samples was unexpected and the reasons for this are unclear. View Full-Text
Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1); human papilloma virus (HPV); retrovirus; liquid based cytology (LBC); invasive cervical cancer (ICC); proviral DNA; PCR human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1); human papilloma virus (HPV); retrovirus; liquid based cytology (LBC); invasive cervical cancer (ICC); proviral DNA; PCR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

He, X.; Maranga, I.O.; Oliver, A.W.; Gichangi, P.; Hampson, L.; Hampson, I.N. Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women. Viruses 2016, 8, 245.

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