Next Article in Journal
A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral
Next Article in Special Issue
Foamy Virus Protein—Nucleic Acid Interactions during Particle Morphogenesis
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Influenza NA and PB1 Gene Segments Interact during the Formation of Viral Progeny: Localization of the Binding Region within the PB1 Gene
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2016, 8(8), 239; doi:10.3390/v8080239

From Cells to Virus Particles: Quantitative Methods to Monitor RNA Packaging

1
CPBS, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, 1919 Route de Mende, Montpellier 34293, France
2
Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen 5018, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roland Marquet and Polly Roy
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Packaging)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1076 KB, uploaded 22 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

In cells, positive strand RNA viruses, such as Retroviridae, must selectively recognize their full-length RNA genome among abundant cellular RNAs to assemble and release particles. How viruses coordinate the intracellular trafficking of both RNA and protein components to the assembly sites of infectious particles at the cell surface remains a long-standing question. The mechanisms ensuring packaging of genomic RNA are essential for viral infectivity. Since RNA packaging impacts on several essential functions of retroviral replication such as RNA dimerization, translation and recombination events, there are many studies that require the determination of RNA packaging efficiency and/or RNA packaging ability. Studies of RNA encapsidation rely upon techniques for the identification and quantification of RNA species packaged by the virus. This review focuses on the different approaches available to monitor RNA packaging: Northern blot analysis, ribonuclease protection assay and quantitative reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction as well as the most recent RNA imaging and sequencing technologies. Advantages, disadvantages and limitations of these approaches will be discussed in order to help the investigator to choose the most appropriate technique. Although the review was written with the prototypic simple murine leukemia virus (MLV) and complex human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in mind, the techniques were described in order to benefit to a larger community. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA; packaging; retrovirus; HIV-1; assembly; Gag; fluorescence microscopy; RNA imaging; RT-qPCR; Northern blot RNA; packaging; retrovirus; HIV-1; assembly; Gag; fluorescence microscopy; RNA imaging; RT-qPCR; Northern blot
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ferrer, M.; Henriet, S.; Chamontin, C.; Lainé, S.; Mougel, M. From Cells to Virus Particles: Quantitative Methods to Monitor RNA Packaging. Viruses 2016, 8, 239.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top