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Viruses 2016, 8(7), 198; doi:10.3390/v8070198

KSHV-Mediated Angiogenesis in Tumor Progression

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno, School of Medicine, 1664 N Virginia Street, MS 320, Reno, NV 89557, USA
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Academic Editor: Craig McCormick
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 18 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Subversion of Stress Responses and Translational Control)
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Abstract

Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a malignant human oncovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus family. HHV-8 is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and two other B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). KS is an invasive tumor of endothelial cells most commonly found in untreated HIV-AIDS or immuno-compromised individuals. KS tumors are highly vascularized and have abnormal, excessive neo-angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation of infected endothelial cells. KSHV directly induces angiogenesis in an autocrine and paracrine fashion through a complex interplay of various viral and cellular pro-angiogenic and inflammatory factors. KS is believed to originate due to a combination of KSHV’s efficient strategies for evading host immune systems and several pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory stimuli. In addition, KSHV infection of endothelial cells produces a wide array of viral oncoproteins with transforming capabilities that regulate multiple host-signaling pathways involved in the activation of angiogenesis. It is likely that the cellular-signaling pathways of angiogenesis and lymph-angiogenesis modulate the rate of tumorigenesis induction by KSHV. This review summarizes the current knowledge on regulating KSHV-mediated angiogenesis by integrating the findings reported thus far on the roles of host and viral genes in oncogenesis, recent developments in cell-culture/animal-model systems, and various anti-angiogenic therapies for treating KSHV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; KSHV; Kaposi’s sarcoma; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; oncogenesis; oncoproteins Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; KSHV; Kaposi’s sarcoma; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; oncogenesis; oncoproteins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Purushothaman, P.; Uppal, T.; Sarkar, R.; Verma, S.C. KSHV-Mediated Angiogenesis in Tumor Progression. Viruses 2016, 8, 198.

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