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Viruses 2016, 8(6), 157; doi:10.3390/v8060157

Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection

1
Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Korea University, Sejong 30019, Korea
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul 01369, Korea
3
R & D Center, Dong-il Shimadzu Corp., Seoul 08506, Korea
4
S & D Co., Ltd., Osong, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28156, Korea
5
College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
6
Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 13135, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Curt Hagedorn
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 30 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4856 KB, uploaded 6 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza virus; Rubus coreanus; black raspberry seed; antiviral activity; gallic acid influenza virus; Rubus coreanus; black raspberry seed; antiviral activity; gallic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.-H.; Oh, M.; Seok, J.H.; Kim, S.; Lee, D.B.; Bae, G.; Bae, H.-I.; Bae, S.Y.; Hong, Y.-M.; Kwon, S.-O.; Lee, D.-H.; Song, C.-S.; Mun, J.Y.; Chung, M.S.; Kim, K.H. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection. Viruses 2016, 8, 157.

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