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Viruses 2016, 8(10), 288; doi:10.3390/v8100288

Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada
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Academic Editor: Charu Kaushic
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
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Abstract

Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell–cell transmission and cell–free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell culture; microscopy; HIV-1; host-pathogen interactions cell culture; microscopy; HIV-1; host-pathogen interactions
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Dirk, B.S.; Van Nynatten, L.R.; Dikeakos, J.D. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques. Viruses 2016, 8, 288.

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