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Viruses 2015, 7(9), 4945-4959; doi:10.3390/v7092853

Determinants of Disease Phenotype Differences Caused by Closely-Related Isolates of Begomovirus Betasatellites Inoculated with the Same Species of Helper Virus

1
Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Institute of Plant Virology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Mehle
Received: 18 July 2015 / Revised: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 August 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
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Abstract

Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) is a monopartite begomovirus associated with different betasatellites. In this study, we investigate two different isolates of Tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite (TYLCCNB) to determine what features of the viral genome are required for induction of characteristic phenotypic differences between closely-related betasatellite. When co-agroinoculated with TYLCCNV into Nicotiana spp. and tomato plants, TYLCCNB-Y25 induced only leaf curling on all hosts, while TYLCCNB-Y10 also induced enations, vein yellowing, and shoot distortions. Further assays showed that βC1 of TYLCCNB-Y25 differs from that of TYLCCNB-Y10 in symptom induction and transcriptional modulating. Hybrid satellites were constructed in which the βC1 gene or 200 nt partial promoter-like fragment upstream of the βC1 were exchanged. Infectivity assays showed that a TYLCCNB-Y25 hybrid with the intact TYLCCNB-Y10 βC1 gene was able to induce vein yellowing, shoot distortions, and a reduced size and number of enations. A TYLCCNB-Y10 hybrid with the intact TYLCCNB-Y25 βC1 gene produced only leaf curling. In contrast, the TYLCCNB-Y25 and TYLCCNB-Y10 hybrids with swapped partial promoter-like regions had little effect on the phenotypes induced by wild-type betasatellites. Further experiments showed that the TYLCCNB-Y25 hybrid carrying the C-terminal region of TYLCCNB-Y10 βC1 induced TYLCCNB-Y10-like symptoms. These findings indicate that the βC1 protein is the major symptom determinant and that the C-terminal region of βC1 plays an important role in symptom induction. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus; hybrid betasatellites; βC1 gene; promoter Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus; hybrid betasatellites; βC1 gene; promoter
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J.; Dang, M.; Huang, Q.; Qian, Y. Determinants of Disease Phenotype Differences Caused by Closely-Related Isolates of Begomovirus Betasatellites Inoculated with the Same Species of Helper Virus. Viruses 2015, 7, 4945-4959.

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