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Correction published on 24 March 2016, see Viruses 2016, 8(4), 89.

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2015, 7(8), 4657-4675; doi:10.3390/v7082838

Autophagy Activated by Bluetongue Virus Infection Plays a Positive Role in Its Replication

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Mehle
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an important pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants. Despite extensive study in recent decades, the interplay between BTV and host cells is not clearly understood. Autophagy as a cellular adaptive response plays a part in many viral infections. In our study, we found that BTV1 infection triggers the complete autophagic process in host cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious double-membrane autophagosome-like vesicles, GFP-LC3 dots accumulation, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and increased levels of autophagic flux in BSR cells (baby hamster kidney cell clones) and primary lamb lingual epithelial cells upon BTV1 infection. Moreover, the results of a UV-inactivated BTV1 infection assay suggested that the induction of autophagy was dependent on BTV1 replication. Therefore, we investigated the role of autophagy in BTV1 replication. The inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors (3-MA, CQ) and RNA interference (siBeclin1) significantly decreased viral protein synthesis and virus yields. In contrast, treating BSR cells with rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, promoted viral protein expression and the production of infectious BTV1. These findings lead us to conclude that autophagy is activated by BTV1 and contributes to its replication, and provide novel insights into BTV-host interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: bluetongue virus (BTV); autophagy; interplay; replication bluetongue virus (BTV); autophagy; interplay; replication
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lv, S.; Xu, Q.; Sun, E.; Yang, T.; Li, J.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, H.; Zhang, J.; Wu, D. Autophagy Activated by Bluetongue Virus Infection Plays a Positive Role in Its Replication. Viruses 2015, 7, 4657-4675.

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