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Viruses 2015, 7(7), 4093-4118; doi:10.3390/v7072810

Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis

1
Department of Microbiology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2
Interdisciplinary Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen Graham
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Exosomes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [473 KB, uploaded 20 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging therapeutic options based on exosomal cargos that may have promise in preventing HIV-1 transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicle; nanoparticle; exosome; semen; seminal plasma; HIV-1; murine AIDS extracellular vesicle; nanoparticle; exosome; semen; seminal plasma; HIV-1; murine AIDS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Madison, M.N.; Okeoma, C.M. Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis. Viruses 2015, 7, 4093-4118.

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