Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis
AbstractExosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging therapeutic options based on exosomal cargos that may have promise in preventing HIV-1 transmission. View Full-Text
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Madison, M.N.; Okeoma, C.M. Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis. Viruses 2015, 7, 4093-4118.
Madison MN, Okeoma CM. Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis. Viruses. 2015; 7(7):4093-4118.Chicago/Turabian Style
Madison, Marisa N.; Okeoma, Chioma M. 2015. "Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis." Viruses 7, no. 7: 4093-4118.