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Viruses 2015, 7(7), 3603-3624; doi:10.3390/v7072793

Modes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence

Molecular and Cellular Epigenetics (GIGA) and Molecular Biology (Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech), University of Liège (ULg), 4000 Liège, Belgium
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Boehr
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 22 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
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Abstract

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP). Since virions are particularly unstable, HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs by transfer of a cell carrying an integrated provirus. After transcription, the viral genomic RNA undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the chromosomal DNA of a cell from the newly infected host. The virus then replicates by either one of two modes: (i) an infectious cycle by virus budding and infection of new targets and (ii) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. HTLV-1 replication initiates a series of mechanisms in the host including antiviral immunity and checkpoint control of cell proliferation. HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to counteract these defense mechanisms allowing continuous persistence in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: HTLV-1; viral replication; viral persistence; Tax; HBZ HTLV-1; viral replication; viral persistence; Tax; HBZ
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Carpentier, A.; Barez, P.-Y.; Hamaidia, M.; Gazon, H.; de Brogniez, A.; Perike, S.; Gillet, N.; Willems, L. Modes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence. Viruses 2015, 7, 3603-3624.

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