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Viruses 2015, 7(7), 3574-3585; doi:10.3390/v7072791

Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses

School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric O. Freed
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 6 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumour Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [115 KB, uploaded 6 July 2015]

Abstract

All viruses target host cell factors for successful life cycle completion. Transcriptional control of DNA viruses by host cell factors is important in the temporal and spatial regulation of virus gene expression. Many of these factors are recruited to enhance virus gene expression and thereby increase virus production, but host cell factors can also restrict virus gene expression and productivity of infection. CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a host cell DNA binding protein important for the regulation of genomic chromatin boundaries, transcriptional control and enhancer element usage. CTCF also functions in RNA polymerase II regulation and in doing so can influence co-transcriptional splicing events. Several DNA viruses, including Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize CTCF to control virus gene expression and many studies have highlighted a role for CTCF in the persistence of these diverse oncogenic viruses. CTCF can both enhance and repress virus gene expression and in some cases CTCF increases the complexity of alternatively spliced transcripts. This review article will discuss the function of CTCF in the life cycle of DNA viruses in the context of known host cell CTCF functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: CTCF; DNA virus; gene expression; cohesin; chromatin organization CTCF; DNA virus; gene expression; cohesin; chromatin organization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pentland, I.; Parish, J.L. Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses. Viruses 2015, 7, 3574-3585.

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