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Viruses 2015, 7(7), 3361-3379; doi:10.3390/v7072776

Genome, Proteome and Structure of a T7-Like Bacteriophage of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Private Bag 4704, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
3
Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06080, Spain
4
Otago Centre for Electron Microscopy, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
5
Centre for Protein Research, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Abram Aertsen and Rob Lavigne
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 24 June 2015
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Abstract

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an economically significant pathogen responsible for severe bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Bacteriophages infecting this phytopathogen have potential as biocontrol agents as part of an integrated approach to the management of bacterial canker, and for use as molecular tools to study this bacterium. A variety of bacteriophages were previously isolated that infect P. syringae pv. actinidiae, and their basic properties were characterized to provide a framework for formulation of these phages as biocontrol agents. Here, we have examined in more detail φPsa17, a phage with the capacity to infect a broad range of P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains and the only member of the Podoviridae in this collection. Particle morphology was visualized using cryo-electron microscopy, the genome was sequenced, and its structural proteins were analysed using shotgun proteomics. These studies demonstrated that φPsa17 has a 40,525 bp genome, is a member of the T7likevirus genus and is closely related to the pseudomonad phages φPSA2 and gh-1. Eleven structural proteins (one scaffolding) were detected by proteomics and φPsa17 has a capsid of approximately 60 nm in diameter. No genes indicative of a lysogenic lifecycle were identified, suggesting the phage is obligately lytic. These features indicate that φPsa17 may be suitable for formulation as a biocontrol agent of P. syringae pv. actinidiae. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocontrol agent; kiwifruit; canker; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae; bacteriophage; cryo-electron microscopy; single particle reconstruction; genomics; proteomics; vB_PsyP_phiPsa17 biocontrol agent; kiwifruit; canker; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae; bacteriophage; cryo-electron microscopy; single particle reconstruction; genomics; proteomics; vB_PsyP_phiPsa17
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Frampton, R.A.; Acedo, E.L.; Young, V.L.; Chen, D.; Tong, B.; Taylor, C.; Easingwood, R.A.; Pitman, A.R.; Kleffmann, T.; Bostina, M.; Fineran, P.C. Genome, Proteome and Structure of a T7-Like Bacteriophage of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. Viruses 2015, 7, 3361-3379.

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