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Viruses 2015, 7(6), 2999-3018; doi:10.3390/v7062757

APOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes

1
Molecular and Cellular Epigenetics, Interdisciplinary Cluster for Applied Genoproteomics (GIGA) of University of Liège (ULg), B34, 1 avenue de L'Hôpital, Sart-Tilman Liège 4000, Belgium
2
Molecular and Cellular Biology, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège (ULg), 13 avenue Maréchal Juin, Gembloux 5030, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Boehr
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
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Abstract

Co-evolution of viruses and their hosts has reached a fragile and dynamic equilibrium that allows viral persistence, replication and transmission. In response, infected hosts have developed strategies of defense that counteract the deleterious effects of viral infections. In particular, single-strand DNA editing by Apolipoprotein B Editing Catalytic subunits proteins 3 (APOBEC3s) is a well-conserved mechanism of mammalian innate immunity that mutates and inactivates viral genomes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of APOBEC3 editing during viral replication, the viral strategies that prevent APOBEC3 activity and the consequences of APOBEC3 modulation on viral fitness and host genome integrity. Understanding the mechanisms involved reveals new prospects for therapeutic intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral replication; quasi-species; hypo-mutation; hyper-mutation; APOBEC3; cytidine deaminase viral replication; quasi-species; hypo-mutation; hyper-mutation; APOBEC3; cytidine deaminase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Willems, L.; Gillet, N.A. APOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes. Viruses 2015, 7, 2999-3018.

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