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Viruses 2015, 7(6), 3285-3309; doi:10.3390/v7062772

Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

1
Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
2
Institute on Ecosystems, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elke Genersch and Sebastian Gisder
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honeybee Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1347 KB, uploaded 23 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey bee; honey bee virus; Apis mellifera; Lake Sinai virus honey bee; honey bee virus; Apis mellifera; Lake Sinai virus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Daughenbaugh, K.F.; Martin, M.; Brutscher, L.M.; Cavigli, I.; Garcia, E.; Lavin, M.; Flenniken, M.L. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses. Viruses 2015, 7, 3285-3309.

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