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Viruses 2015, 7(4), 2006-2013; doi:10.3390/v7042006

Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile

1
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, 1300 S. Second Street, suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA
2
Institute of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Austral University of Chile, Campus Isla Teja, P.O. Box 567, Valdivia, Chile
3
Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Austral University of Chile, Campus Isla Teja, P.O. Box 567, Valdivia, Chile
4
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, ANLIS Dr. Carlos G. Malbran, Velez Sarsfield 563 CABA (1281), Buenos Aires 1281, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric O. Freed
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
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Abstract

Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV), with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%). A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3%) and slums (1.5%) compared with farms (0.5%). Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011), low education level (p = 0.006) and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student) (p = 0.016). No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed. View Full-Text
Keywords: hantavirus; ANDV; sero-prevalence; peri-domestic rodents; Chile; ELISA hantavirus; ANDV; sero-prevalence; peri-domestic rodents; Chile; ELISA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Muñoz-Zanzi, C.; Saavedra, F.; Otth, C.; Domancich, L.; Hott, M.; Padula, P. Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile. Viruses 2015, 7, 2006-2013.

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