Evaluating Environmental Persistence and Disinfection of the Ebola Virus Makona Variant
AbstractBackground: The current disease outbreak caused by the Ebola virus Makona variant (EBOV/Mak) has led to unprecedented morbidity and lethality given its geographic reach and sustained transmission. Sodium hypochlorite and ethanol are well-accepted decontamination agents, however little published evidence supports the selection of appropriate concentrations and contact times. The present study addresses the environmental robustness of EBOV/Mak and evaluates the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and ethanol as disinfectants. Methods: EBOV/Mak was suspended in a simulated organic soil load and dried onto surfaces. Viability was measured at 1 hour, 24 hours, 72 hours, and 192 hours. For the evaluation of disinfectants, EBOV/Mak in a simulated organic soil was dried onto stainless steel carriers and disinfected with 0.01% (v/v), 0.1% (v/v), 0.5% (v/v) and 1% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite solutions or 67% (v/v) ethanol at contact times of 1, 5 or 10 minutes. Results: EBOV/Mak persisted longer on steel and plastic surfaces (192 hours) than cotton (<24 hours). Dilute sodium hypochlorite (0.01% and 0.1%) showed little antiviral action, whereas 0.5% and 1% sodium hypochlorite solutions demonstrated recoverable virus at one minute but sterilized surfaces in five minutes. Disinfection with 67% ethanol did not fully clear infectious virions from 3/9 carriers at 1 minute but sterilized all carriers at 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusions: Sodium hypochlorite and ethanol effectively decontaminate EBOV/Mak suspended in a simulated organic load; however, selection of concentration and contact time proves critical. View Full-Text
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Cook, B.W.M.; Cutts, T.A.; Nikiforuk, A.M.; Poliquin, P.G.; Court, D.A.; Strong, J.E.; Theriault, S.S. Evaluating Environmental Persistence and Disinfection of the Ebola Virus Makona Variant. Viruses 2015, 7, 1975-1986.
Cook BWM, Cutts TA, Nikiforuk AM, Poliquin PG, Court DA, Strong JE, Theriault SS. Evaluating Environmental Persistence and Disinfection of the Ebola Virus Makona Variant. Viruses. 2015; 7(4):1975-1986.Chicago/Turabian Style
Cook, Bradley W.M.; Cutts, Todd A.; Nikiforuk, Aidan M.; Poliquin, Philip G.; Court, Deborah A.; Strong, James E.; Theriault, Steven S. 2015. "Evaluating Environmental Persistence and Disinfection of the Ebola Virus Makona Variant." Viruses 7, no. 4: 1975-1986.