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Viruses 2015, 7(4), 1975-1986; doi:10.3390/v7041975

Evaluating Environmental Persistence and Disinfection of the Ebola Virus Makona Variant

1
Applied Biosafety Research Program, Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health and J. C. Wilt Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P6, Canada and 745 Logan Street, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3L5, Canada
2
Department of Microbiology, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
3
Diagnostics Unit, Special Pathogens Program, Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P6, Canada
4
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jens H. Kuhn
Received: 12 January 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus Research)
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Abstract

Background: The current disease outbreak caused by the Ebola virus Makona variant (EBOV/Mak) has led to unprecedented morbidity and lethality given its geographic reach and sustained transmission. Sodium hypochlorite and ethanol are well-accepted decontamination agents, however little published evidence supports the selection of appropriate concentrations and contact times. The present study addresses the environmental robustness of EBOV/Mak and evaluates the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and ethanol as disinfectants. Methods: EBOV/Mak was suspended in a simulated organic soil load and dried onto surfaces. Viability was measured at 1 hour, 24 hours, 72 hours, and 192 hours. For the evaluation of disinfectants, EBOV/Mak in a simulated organic soil was dried onto stainless steel carriers and disinfected with 0.01% (v/v), 0.1% (v/v), 0.5% (v/v) and 1% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite solutions or 67% (v/v) ethanol at contact times of 1, 5 or 10 minutes. Results: EBOV/Mak persisted longer on steel and plastic surfaces (192 hours) than cotton (<24 hours). Dilute sodium hypochlorite (0.01% and 0.1%) showed little antiviral action, whereas 0.5% and 1% sodium hypochlorite solutions demonstrated recoverable virus at one minute but sterilized surfaces in five minutes. Disinfection with 67% ethanol did not fully clear infectious virions from 3/9 carriers at 1 minute but sterilized all carriers at 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusions: Sodium hypochlorite and ethanol effectively decontaminate EBOV/Mak suspended in a simulated organic load; however, selection of concentration and contact time proves critical. View Full-Text
Keywords: filovirus; Ebola virus; ebolavirus; Makona; environment; disinfection; sodium hypochlorite; ethanol; outbreak management; biosafety filovirus; Ebola virus; ebolavirus; Makona; environment; disinfection; sodium hypochlorite; ethanol; outbreak management; biosafety
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cook, B.W.M.; Cutts, T.A.; Nikiforuk, A.M.; Poliquin, P.G.; Court, D.A.; Strong, J.E.; Theriault, S.S. Evaluating Environmental Persistence and Disinfection of the Ebola Virus Makona Variant. Viruses 2015, 7, 1975-1986.

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