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Viruses 2015, 7(3), 996-1019; doi:10.3390/v7030996

Identification of New Respiratory Viruses in the New Millennium

South African National Bioinformatics Institute, University of the Western Cape, Western Cape 7535, South Africa
Molecular Biology and Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical BioSciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Western Cape 7535, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric O. Freed
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 23 February 2015 / Accepted: 26 February 2015 / Published: 6 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [660 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]


The rapid advancement of molecular tools in the past 15 years has allowed for the retrospective discovery of several new respiratory viruses as well as the characterization of novel emergent strains. The inability to characterize the etiological origins of respiratory conditions, particularly in children, led several researchers to pursue the discovery of the underlying etiology of disease. In 2001, this led to the discovery of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and soon following that the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) promoted an increased interest in coronavirology and the latter discovery of human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 and HCoV-HKU1. Human bocavirus, with its four separate lineages, discovered in 2005, has been linked to acute respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal complications. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) represents the most recent outbreak of a completely novel respiratory virus, which occurred in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and presents a significant threat to human health. This review will detail the most current clinical and epidemiological findings to all respiratory viruses discovered since 2001. View Full-Text
Keywords: respiratory viruses; human coronaviruses; hMPV; bocavirus; SARS-CoV; MERS. respiratory viruses; human coronaviruses; hMPV; bocavirus; SARS-CoV; MERS.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Berry, M.; Gamieldien, J.; Fielding, B.C. Identification of New Respiratory Viruses in the New Millennium. Viruses 2015, 7, 996-1019.

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