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Viruses 2015, 7(3), 1373-1390; doi:10.3390/v7031373

Impacts of Humanized Mouse Models on the Investigation of HIV-1 Infection: Illuminating the Roles of Viral Accessory Proteins in Vivo

1
Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 6068507, Japan
2
CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 3220012, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric O. Freed
Received: 19 January 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes four accessory genes: vif, vpu, vpr, and nef. Recent investigations using in vitro cell culture systems have shed light on the roles of these HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef, in counteracting, modulating, and evading various cellular factors that are responsible for anti-HIV-1 intrinsic immunity. However, since humans are the exclusive target for HIV-1 infection, conventional animal models are incapable of mimicking the dynamics of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Moreover, the effects of HIV-1 accessory proteins on viral infection in vivo remain unclear. To elucidate the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in the dynamics of viral infection in vivo, humanized mouse models, in which the mice are xenotransplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells, has been utilized. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in viral infection, replication, and pathogenicity in vivo, which are revealed by the studies using humanized mouse models. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; accessory protein; humanized mouse model HIV-1; accessory protein; humanized mouse model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamada, E.; Yoshikawa, R.; Nakano, Y.; Misawa, N.; Koyanagi, Y.; Sato, K. Impacts of Humanized Mouse Models on the Investigation of HIV-1 Infection: Illuminating the Roles of Viral Accessory Proteins in Vivo. Viruses 2015, 7, 1373-1390.

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