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Viruses 2015, 7(3), 1062-1078; doi:10.3390/v7031062

Two Year Field Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Mamestra brassicae Nucleopolyhedrovirus Combined with Proteins Derived from Xestia c-nigrum Granulovirus

1
NARO Agricultural Research Center, 3-1-1 Kannondai Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8666, Japan
2
Life Science Research Institute, Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., 3360 Kamo, Kikugawa, Shizuoka 436–0031, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: John Burand and Madoka Nakai
Received: 29 November 2014 / Revised: 8 January 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses and Their Use for Microbial Pest Control)
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Abstract

Japan has only three registered baculovirus biopesticides despite its long history of studies on insect viruses. High production cost is one of the main hindrances for practical use of baculoviruses. Enhancement of insecticidal effect is one possible way to overcome this problem, so there have been many attempts to develop additives for baculoviruses. We found that alkaline soluble proteins of capsules (GVPs) of Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus can increase infectivity of some viruses including Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus (MabrNPV), and previously reported that MabrNPV mixed with GVPs was highly infectious to three important noctuid pests of vegetables in the following order, Helicoverpa armigera, M. brassicae, and Autographa nigrisigna. In this study, small-plot experiments were performed to assess concentrations of MabrNPV and GVPs at three cabbage fields and a broccoli field for the control of M. brassicae. In the first experiment, addition of GVPs (10 µg/mL) to MabrNPV at 106 OBs/mL resulted in a significant increase in NPV infection (from 53% to 66%). In the second experiment, the enhancing effect of GVP on NPV infection was confirmed at 10-times lower concentrations of MabrNPV. In the third and fourth experiments, a 50% reduction in GVPs (from 10 µg/mL to 5 µg/mL) did not result in a lowering of infectivity of the formulations containing MabrNPV at 105 OBs/mL. These results indicate that GVPs are promising additives for virus insecticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mamestra brassicae; baculovirus; cabbage; broccoli; nucleopolyhedrovirus; granulovirus; enhancement; virus infection; biological control Mamestra brassicae; baculovirus; cabbage; broccoli; nucleopolyhedrovirus; granulovirus; enhancement; virus infection; biological control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Goto, C.; Mukawa, S.; Mitsunaga, T. Two Year Field Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Mamestra brassicae Nucleopolyhedrovirus Combined with Proteins Derived from Xestia c-nigrum Granulovirus. Viruses 2015, 7, 1062-1078.

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