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Viruses 2015, 7(2), 634-646; doi:10.3390/v7020634

Engineering Viroid Resistance

RLP AgroScience GmbH, AIPlanta-Institute for Plant Research, Neustadt, 67435, Germany
RLP AgroScience GmbH, AIPlanta-Institute for Plant Research, Neustadt, 67435, Germany
RLP AgroScience GmbH, AIPlanta-Institute for Plant Research, Neustadt, Germany and Centre for Organisational Studies (COS) Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 69120, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Hohn
Received: 13 January 2015 / Accepted: 30 January 2015 / Published: 10 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Technology and Resistance to Viruses - Reviews)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [470 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]


Viroids are non-encapsidated, non-coding, circular, single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs). They are classified into the families Pospiviroidae and Avsunviroidae, whose members replicate in the nucleus and chloroplast of plant cells, respectively. Viroids have a wide host range, including crop and ornamental plants, and can cause devastating diseases with significant economic losses. Thus, several viroids are world-wide, classified as quarantine pathogens and, hence, there is an urgent need for the development of robust antiviroid strategies. RNA silencing-based technologies seem to be a promising tool in this direction. Here, we review the recent advances concerning the complex interaction of viroids with the host’s RNA silencing machinery, evaluate past and present antiviroid approaches, and finally suggest alternative strategies that could potentially be employed in the future in order to achieve transgenic and non-transgenic viroid-free plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA interference; artificial micro RNAs; transgenic plants RNA interference; artificial micro RNAs; transgenic plants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dalakouras, A.; Dadami, E.; Wassenegger, M. Engineering Viroid Resistance. Viruses 2015, 7, 634-646.

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