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Viruses 2015, 7(10), 5191-5205; doi:10.3390/v7102869

Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

1,2,* , 1,2,3,†
,
1,2
and
1,2,4
1
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, 567 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2
BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action, Michigan State University, 567Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, 428 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
4
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 567 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Present address: Population Health and Reproduction, University of California Davis, Davis,CA 95616, USA.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Mehle
Received: 18 July 2015 / Revised: 16 September 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [296 KB, uploaded 29 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit. View Full-Text
Keywords: pseudogenes; HIV-1; differential gene expression; transcriptome; RNASeq pseudogenes; HIV-1; differential gene expression; transcriptome; RNASeq
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gupta, A.; Brown, C.T.; Zheng, Y.-H.; Adami, C. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection. Viruses 2015, 7, 5191-5205.

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