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Viruses 2014, 6(8), 3228-3249; doi:10.3390/v6083228

The Cellular Bromodomain Protein Brd4 has Multiple Functions in E2-Mediated Papillomavirus Transcription Activation

Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Current address: Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
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Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 3 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
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Abstract

The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 functions in multiple processes of the papillomavirus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through its interaction with the viral protein, E2. However, the mechanisms by which E2 and Brd4 activate viral transcription are still not completely understood. In this study, we show that recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), a functional interaction partner of Brd4 in transcription activation, is important for E2’s transcription activation activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses demonstrate that P-TEFb is recruited to the actual papillomavirus episomes. We also show that E2’s interaction with cellular chromatin through Brd4 correlates with its papillomavirus transcription activation function since JQ1(+), a bromodomain inhibitor that efficiently dissociates E2-Brd4 complexes from chromatin, potently reduces papillomavirus transcription. Our study identifies a specific function of Brd4 in papillomavirus gene transcription and highlights the potential use of bromodomain inhibitors as a method to disrupt the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: papillomavirus; E2; Brd4; P-TEFb; JQ1; transcription papillomavirus; E2; Brd4; P-TEFb; JQ1; transcription
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MDPI and ACS Style

Helfer, C.M.; Yan, J.; You, J. The Cellular Bromodomain Protein Brd4 has Multiple Functions in E2-Mediated Papillomavirus Transcription Activation. Viruses 2014, 6, 3228-3249.

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