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Viruses 2013, 5(9), 2129-2152; doi:10.3390/v5092129
Article

Movements of Wild Ruddy Shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and Their Spatial Relationship to Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1

1,* , 2
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
, 5
, 6
, 7
, 8
, 8
 and 9,†
1 San Francisco Bay Estuary Field Station, Western Ecological Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 505 Azuar Drive, Vallejo, CA 94592, USA 2 Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA 3 Alaska Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Juneau, AK 99801, USA 4 Dixon Field Station, Western Ecological Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 800 Business Park Drive, Suite D, Dixon, CA 95620, USA 5 Computer Network Information Center (CNIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China 6 Qinghai State Forestry Administration, Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve (QLNNR), Xining 25700, Qinghai, China 7 Institute of Zoology (IOZ), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China 8 Institute of Virology (WIV), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China 9 EMPRES Wildlife Health and Ecology Unit, Animal Health Service, Animal Production and Health Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 00153, Italy Current address: Emergency Center for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD)-Vietnam, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), No. 3, Nguyen Gia Thieu Street, Hanoi, Vietnam.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
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Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results. However, timing of outbreaks suggested that outbreaks in the flyway began during the winter in poultry with spillover to wild birds during the spring migration. Thus, studies of the movement ecology of wild birds in areas with persistent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks may contribute to understanding their role in transmission of this disease.
Keywords: Brahminy duck; movement ecology; Tadorna ferruginea; avian influenza Brahminy duck; movement ecology; Tadorna ferruginea; avian influenza
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Collins, B.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Perry, W.M.; Yan, B.; Ze, L.; Hou, Y.; Lei, F.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Newman, S.H. Movements of Wild Ruddy Shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and Their Spatial Relationship to Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1. Viruses 2013, 5, 2129-2152.

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