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Viruses 2013, 5(6), 1447-1465; doi:10.3390/v5061447

Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

1
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1855 West Taylor Street, m/c 648, Room 3.138, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 S. Wolcott, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
3
Lions of Illinois Eye Research Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1905 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 606012, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 25 May 2013 / Accepted: 31 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Abstract

Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.
Keywords: herpes; HSV-1; HSV-2; therapeutics; peptides; entry; G1 and G2; aptamers; dendrimers; AC-8; dermaseptins; PI3K inhibitor; K-5 compounds; nanoparticles; compound SP-510-50; apolipoprotein E; viral glycoproteins; gB; gD; gH/gL; viral surfing; hemifusion; fusion; endocytosis herpes; HSV-1; HSV-2; therapeutics; peptides; entry; G1 and G2; aptamers; dendrimers; AC-8; dermaseptins; PI3K inhibitor; K-5 compounds; nanoparticles; compound SP-510-50; apolipoprotein E; viral glycoproteins; gB; gD; gH/gL; viral surfing; hemifusion; fusion; endocytosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hadigal, S.; Shukla, D. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics. Viruses 2013, 5, 1447-1465.

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