Abstract: Vaccinia virus (VACV) was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV) (genus Orthopoxvirus), the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D), constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/-) resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.
Keywords: orthopoxvirus; surfactant protein D; vaccinia virus; A27 protein; pulmonary infection; innate immunity; surfactant protein A; KO mice; Ca2+; sugars
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Perino, J.; Thielens, N.M.; Crouch, E.; Spehner, D.; Crance, J.-M.; Favier, A.-L. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein. Viruses 2013, 5, 928-953.
Perino J, Thielens NM, Crouch E, Spehner D, Crance J-M, Favier A-L. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein. Viruses. 2013; 5(3):928-953.
Perino, Julien; Thielens, Nicole M.; Crouch, Erika; Spehner, Danièle; Crance, Jean-Marc; Favier, Anne-Laure. 2013. "Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein." Viruses 5, no. 3: 928-953.