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Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses
Departments of Neurosciences NC30, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2013; in revised form: 10 February 2013 / Accepted: 11 February 2013 / Published: 15 February 2013
Abstract: The nervous system is the target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir for persisting viruses. Intrathecal antibody (Ab) synthesis is well documented in humans afflicted by infections associated with neurological complications, as well as the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the origin, recruitment, maintenance, and biological relevance of Ab-secreting cells (ASC) found in the central nervous system (CNS) following experimental neurotropic RNA virus infections. We will summarize evidence for a highly dynamic, evolving humoral response characterized by temporal alterations in B cell subsets, proliferation, and differentiation. Overall local Ab plays a beneficial role via complement-independent control of virus replication, although cross or self-reactive Ab to CNS antigens may contribute to immune-mediated pathogenesis during some infections. Importantly, protective Ab exert anti-viral activity not only by direct neutralization, but also by binding to cell surface-expressed viral glycoproteins. Ab engagement of viral glycoproteins blocks budding and mediates intracellular signaling leading to restored homeostatic and innate functions. The sustained Ab production by local ASC, as well as chemokines and cytokines associated with ASC recruitment and retention, are highlighted as critical components of immune control.
Keywords: antibody; antibody-secreting cell; B cell; central nervous system; humoral immunity; and RNA viruses
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Phares, T.W.; Stohlman, S.A.; Bergmann, C.C. Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses. Viruses 2013, 5, 732-752.
Phares TW, Stohlman SA, Bergmann CC. Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses. Viruses. 2013; 5(2):732-752.
Phares, Timothy W.; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Bergmann, Cornelia C. 2013. "Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses." Viruses 5, no. 2: 732-752.