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Identification and Characterization of Porcine Kobuvirus Variant Isolated from Suckling Piglet in Gansu Province, China
Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China
Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun 130122, China
College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2013; in revised form: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Abstract: Kobuviruses comprise three species, the Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus). Porcine kobuvirus is endemic to pig farms and is not restricted geographically but, rather, is distributed worldwide. The complete genomic sequences of four porcine kobuvirus strains isolated during a diarrhea outbreak in piglets in the Gansu province of China were determined. Two of these strains exhibited variations relative to the traditional strains. The potential 3C/3D cleavage sites of the variant strains were Q/C, which differed from the Q/S in the traditional porcine kobuvirus genome. A 90-nucleotide deletion in the 2B protein and a single nucleotide insertion in the 3′UTR were found in the variant strains. The VP1 regions of all four porcine kobuviruses in our study were highly variable (81%–86%). Ten common amino acid mutations were found specifically at certain positions within the VP1 region. Significant recombination sites were identified using SimPlot scans of whole genome sequences. Porcine kobuviruses were also detected in pig serum, indicating that the virus can escape the gastrointestinal tract and travel to the circulatory system. These findings suggest that mutations and recombination events may have contributed to the high level of genetic diversity of porcine kobuviruses and serve as a driving force in its evolution.
Keywords: porcine kobuvirus; variation; phylogenetic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Fan, S.; Sun, H.; Ying, Y.; Gao, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, T.; Yu, Z.; Yang, S.; Zhao, Y.; Qin, C.; Gao, Y.; Xia, X. Identification and Characterization of Porcine Kobuvirus Variant Isolated from Suckling Piglet in Gansu Province, China. Viruses 2013, 5, 2548-2560.
Fan S, Sun H, Ying Y, Gao X, Wang Z, Yu Y, Li Y, Wang T, Yu Z, Yang S, Zhao Y, Qin C, Gao Y, Xia X. Identification and Characterization of Porcine Kobuvirus Variant Isolated from Suckling Piglet in Gansu Province, China. Viruses. 2013; 5(10):2548-2560.
Fan, Shengtao; Sun, Heting; Ying, Ying; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Yicong; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Yu, Zhijun; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Qin, Chuan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu. 2013. "Identification and Characterization of Porcine Kobuvirus Variant Isolated from Suckling Piglet in Gansu Province, China." Viruses 5, no. 10: 2548-2560.