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Viruses 2011, 3(5), 493-519; doi:10.3390/v3050493

The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever

1
Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd. Galveston, TX 77555, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd. Galveston, TX 77555, USA
3
The Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd. Galveston, TX 77555, USA
4
The Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd. Galveston, TX 77555, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2011 / Revised: 26 April 2011 / Accepted: 2 May 2011 / Published: 6 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Emerging and Re-Emerging RNA Viruses)
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Abstract

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic disease distributed in sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, and virus replication in domestic ruminant results in high rates of mortality and abortion. RVFV infection in humans usually causes a self-limiting, acute and febrile illness; however, a small number of cases progress to neurological disorders, partial or complete blindness, hemorrhagic fever, or thrombosis. This review describes the pathology of RVF in human patients and several animal models, and summarizes the role of viral virulence factors and host factors that affect RVFV pathogenesis.
Keywords: Rift Valley fever virus; pathogenesis; hemorrhagic fever; encephalitis; blindness Rift Valley fever virus; pathogenesis; hemorrhagic fever; encephalitis; blindness
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Ikegami, T.; Makino, S. The Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever. Viruses 2011, 3, 493-519.

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