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Viruses 2011, 3(1), 1-11; doi:10.3390/v3010001
Review

Rev Variation during Persistent Lentivirus Infection

1,* , 2
 and
2,3
Received: 20 November 2010 / Revised: 29 December 2010 / Accepted: 6 January 2011 / Published: 11 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Dynamics and Evolution)
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Abstract

The ability of lentiviruses to continually evolve and escape immune control is the central impediment in developing an effective vaccine for HIV-1 and other lentiviruses. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is considered a useful model for immune control of lentivirus infection. Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and broadly neutralizing antibody effectively control EIAV replication during inapparent stages of disease, but after years of low-level replication, the virus is still able to produce evasion genotypes that lead to late re-emergence of disease. There is a high rate of genetic variation in the EIAV surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) and in the region of the transmembrane protein (TM) overlapped by the major exon of Rev. This review examines genetic and phenotypic variation in Rev during EIAV disease and a possible role for Rev in immune evasion and virus persistence.
Keywords: lentivirus; Rev; equine infectious anemia virus; selection; immune evasion; overlapping reading frames lentivirus; Rev; equine infectious anemia virus; selection; immune evasion; overlapping reading frames
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Carpenter, S.; Chen, W.-C.; Dorman, K.S. Rev Variation during Persistent Lentivirus Infection. Viruses 2011, 3, 1-11.

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