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Viruses 2010, 2(8), 1510-1529; doi:10.3390/v2081510

Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Virology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105-3678, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 May 2010 / Revised: 9 July 2010 / Accepted: 21 July 2010 / Published: 27 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Influenza)
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The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine), although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease), the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.
Keywords: combination therapy; antivirals; influenza virus; neuraminidase inhibitors; oseltamivir; amantadine; ribavirin combination therapy; antivirals; influenza virus; neuraminidase inhibitors; oseltamivir; amantadine; ribavirin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Govorkova, E.A.; Webster, R.G. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza. Viruses 2010, 2, 1510-1529.

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