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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090487

Viruses of Eukaryotic Algae: Diversity, Methods for Detection, and Future Directions

1
The Department of Microbiology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
2
The Department of Biology, The University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Virus)
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Abstract

The scope for ecological studies of eukaryotic algal viruses has greatly improved with the development of molecular and bioinformatic approaches that do not require algal cultures. Here, we review the history and perceived future opportunities for research on eukaryotic algal viruses. We begin with a summary of the 65 eukaryotic algal viruses that are presently in culture collections, with emphasis on shared evolutionary traits (e.g., conserved core genes) of each known viral type. We then describe how core genes have been used to enable molecular detection of viruses in the environment, ranging from PCR-based amplification to community scale “-omics” approaches. Special attention is given to recent studies that have employed network-analyses of -omics data to predict virus-host relationships, from which a general bioinformatics pipeline is described for this type of approach. Finally, we conclude with acknowledgement of how the field of aquatic virology is adapting to these advances, and highlight the need to properly characterize new virus-host systems that may be isolated using preliminary molecular surveys. Researchers can approach this work using lessons learned from the Chlorella virus system, which is not only the best characterized algal-virus system, but is also responsible for much of the foundation in the field of aquatic virology. View Full-Text
Keywords: eukaryotic algal virus; algal-NCLDV; Picornavirales; phytoplankton eukaryotic algal virus; algal-NCLDV; Picornavirales; phytoplankton
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Coy, S.R.; Gann, E.R.; Pound, H.L.; Short, S.M.; Wilhelm, S.W. Viruses of Eukaryotic Algae: Diversity, Methods for Detection, and Future Directions. Viruses 2018, 10, 487.

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