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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090458

HHV-8 Seroprevalence and Genotype Distribution in Africa, 1998–2017: A Systematic Review

1
HIV/AIDS & Global Health Research Programme, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
2
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi 34556-00100, Kenya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8) is the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). We systematically reviewed literature published between 1998 and 2017, according to the PRISMA guidelines, to understand the distribution of HHV-8 infection in Africa. More than two-thirds (64%) of studies reported on seroprevalence and 29.3% on genotypes; 9.5% were on both seroprevalence and genotypes. About 45% of African countries had data on HHV-8 seroprevalence exclusively, and more than half (53%) had data on either seroprevalence or genotypes. Almost half (47%) of the countries had no data on HHV-8 infection. There was high heterogeneity in the types of tests and interpretation algorithms used in determining HHV-8 seropositivity across the different studies. Generally, seroprevalence ranged from 2.0% in a group of young children in Eritrea to 100% in a small group of individuals with KS in Central African Republic, and in a larger group of individuals with KS in Morocco. Approximately 16% of studies reported on children. Difference in seroprevalence across the African regions was not significant (95% CI, χ2 = 0.86; p = 0.35), although specifically a relatively significant level of infection was observed in HIV-infected children. About 38% of the countries had data on K1 genotypes. K1 genotypes A, A5, B, C, F and Z occurred at frequencies of 5.3%, 26.3%, 42.1%, 18.4%, 5.3% and 2.6%, respectively. Twenty-three percent of the countries had data for K15 genotypes, and genotypes P, M and N occurred at frequencies of 52.2%, 39.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. Data on HHV-8 inter-genotype recombinants in Africa are scanty. HHV-8 may be endemic in the entire Africa continent but there is need for a harmonized testing protocol for a better understanding of HHV-8 seropositivity. K1 genotypes A5 and B, and K15 genotypes P and M, from Africa, should be considered in vaccine design efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: HHV-8; seroprevalence; genotypes; systematic review; Africa HHV-8; seroprevalence; genotypes; systematic review; Africa
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Etta, E.M.; Alayande, D.P.; Mavhandu-Ramarumo, L.G.; Gachara, G.; Bessong, P.O. HHV-8 Seroprevalence and Genotype Distribution in Africa, 1998–2017: A Systematic Review. Viruses 2018, 10, 458.

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