Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Synergistic Viral Replication of Marek’s Disease Virus and Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J is Responsible for the Enhanced Pathogenicity in the Superinfection of Chickens
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Hepadnavirus Identified in an Immunocompromised Domestic Cat in Australia
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050270

Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Affects Intestinal Microbiota, Barrier Structure Injury, and Inflammatory Intestinal Disease in the Chicken Ileum

1,2,3,4
,
1,2,3,4
,
1,2,3,4
,
5
,
1,2,3,4,6
,
1,2,3,4
,
1,2,3,4,6
,
1,2,3,4,6
and
1,2,3,4,6,*
1
College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China
3
Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangdong, Guangzhou 510642, China
4
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642, China
5
Veterinary Laboratory, Guangzhou Zoo, Guangzhou 510642, China
6
South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models for Viral Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2504 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AIV) has caused significant losses to the poultry industry due to the high mortality associated with secondary infections attributable to E. coli. This study tries to address the underlying secondary mechanisms after H9N2 AIV infection. Initially, nine day-old specific pathogen-free chickens were assigned to control (uninfected) and H9N2-infected groups, respectively. Using Illumina sequencing, histological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR, it was found that H9N2 AIV caused intestinal microbiota disorder, injury, and inflammatory damage to the intestinal mucosa. Notably, the genera Escherichia, especially E. coli, significantly increased (p < 0.01) at five days post-infection (dpi), while Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and other probiotic organisms were significantly reduced (p < 0.01). Simultaneously, the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, claudin 3, and occludin), TFF2, and Muc2 were significantly reduced (p < 0.01), indicating the destruction of the intestinal epithelial cell tight junctions and the damage of mucin layer construction. Moreover, the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-22, IFN-α, and IL-17A in intestinal epithelial cells were significantly upregulated, resulting in the inflammatory response and intestinal injury. Our findings may provide a theoretical basis for observed gastroenteritis-like symptoms such as diarrhea and secondary E. coli infection following H9N2 AIV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: H9N2 AIV; intestinal microbiota; barrier injury; inflammatory intestinal disease; E. coli H9N2 AIV; intestinal microbiota; barrier injury; inflammatory intestinal disease; E. coli
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Liu, X.; Chen, F.; Zuo, K.; Wu, C.; Yan, Y.; Chen, W.; Lin, W.; Xie, Q. Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Affects Intestinal Microbiota, Barrier Structure Injury, and Inflammatory Intestinal Disease in the Chicken Ileum. Viruses 2018, 10, 270.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top