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Viruses 2018, 10(5), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050254

Two Novel Hypovirulence-Associated Mycoviruses in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Botrytis cinerea: Molecular Characterization and Suppression of Infection Cushion Formation

1
The State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
The Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
3
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 13 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Abstract

Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus causing disease on many important agricultural crops. Two novel mycoviruses, namely Botrytis cinerea hypovirus 1 (BcHV1) and Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 1 (BcFV1), were fully sequenced. The genome of BcHV1 is 10,214 nt long excluding a poly-A tail and possesses one large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein possessing several conserved domains including RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), showing homology to hypovirus-encoded polyproteins. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BcHV1 may belong to the proposed genus Betahypovirus in the viral family Hypoviridae. The genome of BcFV1 is 8411 nt in length excluding the poly A tail and theoretically processes two major ORFs, namely ORF1 and ORF2. The larger ORF1 encoded polypeptide contains protein domains of an RdRp and a viral helicase, whereas the function of smaller ORF2 remains unknown. The BcFV1 was phylogenetically clustered with other fusariviruses forming an independent branch, indicating BcFV1 was a member in Fusariviridae. Both BcHV1 and BcFV1 were capable of being transmitted horizontally through hyphal anastomosis. Infection by BcHV1 alone caused attenuated virulence without affecting mycelial growth, significantly inhibited infection cushion (IC) formation, and altered expression of several IC-formation-associated genes. However, wound inoculation could fully rescue the virulence phenotype of the BcHV1 infected isolate. These results indicate the BcHV1-associated hypovirulence is caused by the viral influence on IC-formation-associated pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: Botrytis cinerea; hypovirus; fusarivirus; hypovirulence; infection cushion Botrytis cinerea; hypovirus; fusarivirus; hypovirulence; infection cushion
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Hao, F.; Ding, T.; Wu, M.; Zhang, J.; Yang, L.; Chen, W.; Li, G. Two Novel Hypovirulence-Associated Mycoviruses in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Botrytis cinerea: Molecular Characterization and Suppression of Infection Cushion Formation. Viruses 2018, 10, 254.

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