Genome Sequences of Akhmeta Virus, an Early Divergent Old World Orthopoxvirus
AbstractAnnotated whole genome sequences of three isolates of the Akhmeta virus (AKMV), a novel species of orthopoxvirus (OPXV), isolated from the Akhmeta and Vani regions of the country Georgia, are presented and discussed. The AKMV genome is similar in genomic content and structure to that of the cowpox virus (CPXV), but a lower sequence identity was found between AKMV and Old World OPXVs than between other known species of Old World OPXVs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AKMV diverged prior to other Old World OPXV. AKMV isolates formed a monophyletic clade in the OPXV phylogeny, yet the sequence variability between AKMV isolates was higher than between the monkeypox virus strains in the Congo basin and West Africa. An AKMV isolate from Vani contained approximately six kb sequence in the left terminal region that shared a higher similarity with CPXV than with other AKMV isolates, whereas the rest of the genome was most similar to AKMV, suggesting recombination between AKMV and CPXV in a region containing several host range and virulence genes. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
ZIP-Document (ZIP, 1285 KB)
Externally hosted supplementary file 1
Description: Table S1: Strains used in this study Table S2: Comparison of annotated genes in the ITR and terminal regions of AKMV_AKHM13-88, CXPV_BR, CPXV_GRI-90, and ECTV_MOS Table S3: Comparison of annotated genes in the highly conserved central region of AKMV_AKHM13-88, CXPV_BR, CPXV_GRI-90, and ECTV_MOS Table S4: The NR and TR regions in the ITR of Old World OPXVs Table S5: Identity matrix of the highly conserved central region of the 22 selected OPXVs Table S6: Different genes between AKMV_AKMV13-88 and CPXV-BR in the ITR and terminal regions Figure S1: Protein sequence alignment of AKMV009 with three similar proteins Table S7: Comparison of the putative AKMV_AKHM13-88 host range factors to CPXV_BR Table S8: Comparison of AKMV_VANI10 orthologs to the proteins of AKMV_AKHM13-88 and CPXV_GRI-90 encoded within or flanking the recombination region Table S9: dN/dS analysis of proteins within or adjacent to the recombination region Figure S2: Amino acid alignment of CPXV_GRI90 C3L homologs from representative OPXVs Figure S3: Amino acid alignment of KilA-N/RING domain containing proteins from representative OPXVs.
Share & Cite This Article
Gao, J.; Gigante, C.; Khmaladze, E.; Liu, P.; Tang, S.; Wilkins, K.; Zhao, K.; Davidson, W.; Nakazawa, Y.; Maghlakelidze, G.; Geleishvili, M.; Kokhreidze, M.; Carroll, D.S.; Emerson, G.; Li, Y. Genome Sequences of Akhmeta Virus, an Early Divergent Old World Orthopoxvirus. Viruses 2018, 10, 252.
Gao J, Gigante C, Khmaladze E, Liu P, Tang S, Wilkins K, Zhao K, Davidson W, Nakazawa Y, Maghlakelidze G, Geleishvili M, Kokhreidze M, Carroll DS, Emerson G, Li Y. Genome Sequences of Akhmeta Virus, an Early Divergent Old World Orthopoxvirus. Viruses. 2018; 10(5):252.Chicago/Turabian Style
Gao, Jinxin; Gigante, Crystal; Khmaladze, Ekaterine; Liu, Pengbo; Tang, Shiyuyun; Wilkins, Kimberly; Zhao, Kun; Davidson, Whitni; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Maghlakelidze, Giorgi; Geleishvili, Marika; Kokhreidze, Maka; Carroll, Darin S.; Emerson, Ginny; Li, Yu. 2018. "Genome Sequences of Akhmeta Virus, an Early Divergent Old World Orthopoxvirus." Viruses 10, no. 5: 252.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.