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Viruses 2018, 10(5), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050217

The Sequence of Two Bacteriophages with Hypermodified Bases Reveals Novel Phage-Host Interactions

1
Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
3
Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health and Applied Science, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
4
Public Health Agency of Canada, National Microbiology Laboratory, Guelph, ON N1G 3W4, Canada
5
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 4G2, Canada
6
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
7
Hayward Genetics Center and Tulane Cancer Center, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Deceased.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage-Host Interactions)
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Abstract

Bacteriophages SP-15 and ΦW-14 are members of the Myoviridae infecting Bacillus subtilis and Delftia (formerly Pseudomonas) acidovorans, respectively. What links them is that in both cases, approximately 50% of the thymine residues are replaced by hypermodified bases. The consequence of this is that the physico-chemical properties of the DNA are radically altered (melting temperature (Tm), buoyant density and susceptibility to restriction endonucleases). Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we sequenced the genomes of both viruses. Phage ΦW-14 possesses a 157-kb genome (56.3% GC) specifying 236 proteins, while SP-15 is larger at 222 kb (38.6 mol % G + C) and encodes 318 proteins. In both cases, the phages can be considered genomic singletons since they do not possess BLASTn homologs. While no obvious genes were identified as being responsible for the modified base in ΦW-14, SP-15 contains a cluster of genes obviously involved in carbohydrate metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophage; hypermodified bases; alpha-putrescinylthymine; ΦW-14; SP-15; Bacillus; Delftia; DNA sequencing; 5-hydroxymethyluracil; 5-hydroxypentyluracil bacteriophage; hypermodified bases; alpha-putrescinylthymine; ΦW-14; SP-15; Bacillus; Delftia; DNA sequencing; 5-hydroxymethyluracil; 5-hydroxypentyluracil
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kropinski, A.M.; Turner, D.; Nash, J.H.E.; Ackermann, H.-W.; Lingohr, E.J.; Warren, R.A.; Ehrlich, K.C.; Ehrlich, M. The Sequence of Two Bacteriophages with Hypermodified Bases Reveals Novel Phage-Host Interactions. Viruses 2018, 10, 217.

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