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Forests 2018, 9(1), 20; doi:10.3390/f9010020

Adaptation to Climate Change in Forestry: A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA)

1
Laboratory of Forest Economics (LEF), Paris Institute of Technology for Life, Food and Environmental Sciences (AgroParisTech), National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), 54000 Nancy, France
2
Freiburger Str. 24, 79112 Freiburg, Germany
3
Forestry Economics and Forest Planning, University of Freiburg, Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 6 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue At the Frontiers of Knowledge in Forest Economics)
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Abstract

We analyze economic perspectives of forest adaptation to risk attributes, caused mostly by climate change. We construct a database with 89 systematically chosen articles, dealing simultaneously with climate, adaptation, risk and economy. We classify the database with regard to 18 variables bearing on the characteristics of the paper, the description of the risk and the adaptation strategy, the topic and the corresponding results. To achieve a “high level-of-evidence”, we realize a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify which variables were found in combination with one other in the literature and make distinct groupings affecting adaptive decisions. We identify three groups: (i) profit and production; (ii) microeconomic risk-handling; and (iii) decision and behavior. The first group includes economic costs and benefits as the driver of adaptation and prioritizes simulation, and a mix of theoretical and empirical economic approach. The second group distinctly involves risk-related issues, in particular its management by adaptation. The third group gathers a large set of social and behavioral variables affecting management decisions collected through questionnaires. Such an approach allows the identification of gaps in the literature, concerning the impact of owners’ preferences towards risk and uncertainty regarding adaptation decisions, the fact that adaptation was often reduced in an attempt to adapt to the increasing risk of wildfire, or the existence of a regional bias. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptation strategies; climate change; risk; economics adaptation strategies; climate change; risk; economics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Brunette, M.; Bourke, R.; Hanewinkel, M.; Yousefpour, R. Adaptation to Climate Change in Forestry: A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Forests 2018, 9, 20.

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