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Forests 2017, 8(12), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8120504

Management Goals and Performance: Clustering State Forest Management Organizations in Europe with Multivariate Statistics

1
Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry (TESAF), University of Padua, 35020 Legnaro PD, Italy
2
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)—Agricultural Development Economics Division, 00153 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics and Human Dimensions)
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Abstract

State Forest Management Organizations (SFMOs) play a crucial role in the European forest sector, managing almost half of the forests in the region. SFMOs are often only managed for timber production, whereas, being publicly owned, they should play an important role in providing a vast range of public goods (e.g., soil protection, biodiversity conservation). Their management goals depend on the history and current conditions of the forest sector at a national level, as well as different challenges and the potential for development. Although there is a lack of knowledge about the current performance of SFMOs, there have been recent changes to their management goals and practices in response to the new demands expressed by society (e.g., transparency, social inclusion). The main purpose of this study was to analyze the current situation of SFMOs by grouping them with the help of a Cluster Analysis according to indicators that reflect the three pillars of the common understanding of the sustainable forest management (SFM) concept. Additionally, in light of the differences in the forest practices and management priorities in each country, we used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to group countries according to common characteristics of the forest sector at the national level. The results showed three main clusters of SFMOs in Europe. The first cluster had a rather small but commercially-oriented forestry unit together with other business activities and a strong focus on public services. The second focused on public interest, rather than commercially-oriented organizations. The third is mainly profit-seeking. The existence of diverse SFMO clusters shows the possibility of different approaches for SFM with a focus on different goals (e.g., profit gaining, public service delivery). View Full-Text
Keywords: state ownership; forest management; forest enterprise; public enterprise; cluster analysis; European forestry state ownership; forest management; forest enterprise; public enterprise; cluster analysis; European forestry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Liubachyna, A.; Bubbico, A.; Secco, L.; Pettenella, D. Management Goals and Performance: Clustering State Forest Management Organizations in Europe with Multivariate Statistics. Forests 2017, 8, 504.

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