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Forests 2017, 8(1), 2; doi:10.3390/f8010002

Independent Effects of Invasive Shrubs and Deer Herbivory on Plant Community Dynamics

Department of Forestry and Horticulture, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
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Academic Editors: Brian J. Palik and Timothy A. Martin
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Invasive and Exotic Plants on Forests)
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Abstract

Both invasive species and deer herbivory are recognized as locally important drivers of plant community dynamics. However, few studies have examined whether their effects are synergistic, additive, or antagonistic. At three study areas in southern New England, we examined the interaction of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) herbivory and three levels of invasive shrub control over seven growing seasons on the dynamics of nine herbaceous and shrub guilds. Although evidence of synergistic interactions was minimal, the separate effects of invasive shrub control and deer herbivory on plant community composition and dynamics were profound. Plant communities remained relatively unchanged where invasive shrubs were not treated, regardless if deer herbivory was excluded or not. With increasing intensity of invasive shrub control, native shrubs and forbs became more dominant where deer herbivory was excluded, and native graminoids became progressively more dominant where deer herbivory remained severe. While deer exclusion and intensive invasive shrub control increased native shrubs and forbs, it also increased invasive vines. Restoring native plant communities in areas with both established invasive shrub thickets and severe deer browsing will require an integrated management plan to eliminate recalcitrant invasive shrubs, reduce deer browsing intensity, and quickly treat other opportunistic invasive species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Berberis; non-native shrubs; keystone herbivore; Odocoileus; white-tailed deer Berberis; non-native shrubs; keystone herbivore; Odocoileus; white-tailed deer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ward, J.S.; Williams, S.C.; Linske, M.A. Independent Effects of Invasive Shrubs and Deer Herbivory on Plant Community Dynamics. Forests 2017, 8, 2.

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