Next Article in Journal
Recent Afforestation in the Iowa River and Vorskla River Basins: A Comparative Trends Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Wood or Laminate?—Psychological Research of Customer Expectations
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2016, 7(11), 276; doi:10.3390/f7110276

Effect of Tree Spacing on Tree Level Volume Growth, Morphology, and Wood Properties in a 25-Year-Old Pinus banksiana Plantation in the Boreal Forest of Quebec

1
Northern Hardwoods Research Institute, 165 Hebert blvd., Edmundston, NB E3V 2S8, Canada
2
Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec, Direction de la Recherche Forestière, 2700 rue Einstein, Québec, QC G1P 3W8, Canada
3
Département des Sciences Fondamentales, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 boul. de l’Université, Chicoutimi, QC G7H 2B1, Canada
4
Département des Sciences du bois et de la Forêt, Université Laval, 2425 rue de la Terrasse, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dave Verbyla and Timothy A. Martin
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2748 KB, uploaded 12 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

The number of planted trees per hectare influences individual volume growth, which in turn can affect wood properties. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of six different plantation spacings of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) 25 years following planting on tree growth, morphology, and wood properties. Stem analyses were performed to calculate annual and cumulative diameter, height, and volume growth. For morphological and wood property measurements several parameters were analyzed: diameter of the largest branch, live crown ratio, wood density, and the moduli of elasticity and rupture on small clear samples. The highest volume growth for individual trees was obtained in the 1111 trees/ha plantation, while the lowest was in the 4444 trees/ha plantation. Wood density and the moduli of elasticity and rupture did not change significantly between the six plantation spacings, but the largest branch diameter was significantly higher in the 1111 trees/ha (3.26 cm mean diameter) compared with the 4444 trees/ha spacing (2.03 cm mean diameter). Based on this study, a wide range of spacing induced little negative effect on the measured wood properties, except for the size of knots. Increasing the initial spacing of jack pine plantations appears to be a good choice if producing large, fast-growing stems is the primary goal, but lumber mechanical and visual properties could be decreased due to the larger branch diameter. View Full-Text
Keywords: plantation spacing; jack pine; growth; wood density; moduli of elasticity (MOE); moduli of rupture (MOR) plantation spacing; jack pine; growth; wood density; moduli of elasticity (MOE); moduli of rupture (MOR)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hébert, F.; Krause, C.; Plourde, P.-Y.; Achim, A.; Prégent, G.; Ménétrier, J. Effect of Tree Spacing on Tree Level Volume Growth, Morphology, and Wood Properties in a 25-Year-Old Pinus banksiana Plantation in the Boreal Forest of Quebec. Forests 2016, 7, 276.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top