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Forests 2016, 7(11), 260; doi:10.3390/f7110260

Thousand Cankers Disease Complex: A Forest Health Issue that Threatens Juglans Species across the U.S.

1
Department of Forest Engineering, Resources & Management, Oregon State University, 280 Peavy Hall, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA
2
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, 2505 E.J. Chapman Dr., 370 Plant Biotechnology Building, Knoxville, TN 37996-4560, USA
3
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States Vegetable Laboratory, 2700 Savannah Highway Charleston, SC 24914-5334, USA
4
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, 200 W.T. Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804, USA
5
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, 2431 Joe Johnson Dr., 252 Ellington Plant Sciences Building, Knoxville, TN 37996-4560, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: John MacKay and Stephen P. DiFazio
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 29 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract

Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) is a disease complex wherein the fungus (Geosmithia morbida) is vectored by the walnut twig beetle (WTB, Pityophthorus juglandis). The disease causes mortality primarily of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra), although other walnut and wingnut (Pterocarya) species are also susceptible. Black walnut is native to the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. but is widely planted in western states. Total standing volume in both urban and forested settings is approximately 96 million cubic meters, and is valued at $539 billion. Although native to the Southwestern U.S., the range of WTB has expanded considerably. The spread of G. morbida coincides with that of WTB. TCD was introduced into Tennessee in 2010, and has spread to seven eastern states. Trees infected with TCD exhibit drought-like symptoms, making field detection difficult without molecular and/or morphological methods. The recently sequenced G. morbida genome will provide valuable research tools focused on understanding gene interactions between organisms involved in TCD and mechanisms of pathogenicity. With no chemical treatments available, quarantine and sanitation are preeminent options for slowing the spread of TCD, although biological control agents have been discovered. High levels of black walnut mortality due to TCD will have far-reaching implications for both eastern and western states. View Full-Text
Keywords: eastern black walnut; walnut twig beetle; fungal pathogen; Geosmithia morbida; Juglans nigra; Pterocarya spp.; Pityophthorus juglandis; insect vector; forest health eastern black walnut; walnut twig beetle; fungal pathogen; Geosmithia morbida; Juglans nigra; Pterocarya spp.; Pityophthorus juglandis; insect vector; forest health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daniels, D.A.; Nix, K.A.; Wadl, P.A.; Vito, L.M.; Wiggins, G.J.; Windham, M.T.; Ownley, B.H.; Lambdin, P.L.; Grant, J.F.; Merten, P.; Klingeman, W.E.; Hadziabdic, D. Thousand Cankers Disease Complex: A Forest Health Issue that Threatens Juglans Species across the U.S.. Forests 2016, 7, 260.

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