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Forests 2016, 7(1), 20; doi:10.3390/f7010020

Quantifying the Impacts of Systemic Acquired Resistance to Pitch Canker on Monterey Pine Growth Rate and Hyperspectral Reflectance

1
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Linden, NJ 07036, USA
2
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jan Stenlid, Jonas Oliva and Audrius Menkis
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 31 December 2015 / Published: 12 January 2016
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Abstract

Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a disease affecting Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) and many other pine species throughout the world. The impact of pitch canker on Pinus radiata may be limited by systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a phenomenon that elevates resistance to a pathogen after initial challenge by that pathogen or another microorganism. Allocation of resources to defense, as a consequence of SAR, is presumed to reduce resources available to support growth and reproduction, but specific fitness consequences associated with SAR in P. radiata have not been measured. To quantify impacts of SAR on growth rate, a 2 × 2 factorial experiment was established in which trees were either primed for SAR or unprimed, with half the trees in each of those two groups being inoculated with the pitch canker pathogen and the other half not inoculated. Priming for SAR was accomplished by inoculating one branch with F. circinatum and removing inoculated branches prior to subsequent challenge inoculations (= disease treatments). Disease treatments included three inoculations that were removed for measurement of lesion length, and three additional inoculations that remained on the tree as a representation of persistent disease. Control trees were mock inoculated with water. Main effects of priming and disease did not result in significant effects on growth rate. Based on hyperspectral canopy reflectance data, diseased trees were associated with higher difference vegetation index values and biomass. The absence of a negative impact on growth rate associated with SAR suggests that induction of resistance may have utility as a tool for management of pitch canker in plantations. View Full-Text
Keywords: systemic acquired resistance; Pinus radiata; pitch canker systemic acquired resistance; Pinus radiata; pitch canker
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reynolds, G.J.; Gordon, T.R.; McRoberts, N. Quantifying the Impacts of Systemic Acquired Resistance to Pitch Canker on Monterey Pine Growth Rate and Hyperspectral Reflectance. Forests 2016, 7, 20.

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