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Forests 2016, 7(1), 25; doi:10.3390/f7010025

Synthesis and New Observations on Needle Pathogens of Larch in Northern Finland

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Rovaniemi Research Unit, Rovaniemi 96300, Finland
Academic Editors: Jan Stenlid, Jonas Oliva and Audrius Menkis
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
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Abstract

Needle pathogens of larch (Larix spp.) in the Nordic countries are under-studied. Their incidence in Finland tends to be low and local, and this may be a function of enemy release, since species of larch were introduced to the region. Here, the ecology and incidence of larch needle pathogens and the abiotic factors that also affect larch in northern Finland are reviewed. Field observations and related laboratory analyses during the past 35 years have mainly been obtained near the Kivalo Research Area within the Arctic Circle, Finnish Lapland. The relatively recent introduction of Hypodermella laricis is a primary focus. This pathogen is not only new to Nordic countries, but can cause severe outbreaks, defoliation and crown-thinning in the canopies of all ages of most planted larch species worldwide. Symptoms of H. laricis clearly differ from those of Mycosphaerella laricina; the latter has affected Larix sibirica at high latitudes for decades. The effects of Meria laricis, Lophodermium laricinum, various rust fungi, and wind and frost are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Larix; Hypodermella laricis; Mycosphaerella laricina; Melampsora; Melampsoridium; rusts; alternate hosts; Betula; Salix; Alnus Larix; Hypodermella laricis; Mycosphaerella laricina; Melampsora; Melampsoridium; rusts; alternate hosts; Betula; Salix; Alnus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jalkanen, R. Synthesis and New Observations on Needle Pathogens of Larch in Northern Finland. Forests 2016, 7, 25.

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