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Forests 2015, 6(9), 2941-2958; doi:10.3390/f6092941

Soil Nitrogen Transformations and Availability in Upland Pine and Bottomland Alder Forests

1
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
2
River Basin Research Center, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
4
Forest Practice Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute, Pocheon 11186, Korea
5
Department of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
6
Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Qatar University, Doha P.O. Box 2713, Qatar
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Heinz Rennenberg
Received: 28 June 2015 / Revised: 23 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 27 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrition of Trees and Forests)
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Abstract

Soil nitrogen (N) processes and inorganic N availability are closely coupled with ecosystem productivity and various ecological processes. Spatio-temporal variations and environmental effects on net N transformation rates and inorganic N concentrations in bulk soil and ion exchange resin were examined in an upland pine forest (UPF) and a bottomland alder forest (BAF), which were expected to have distinguishing N properties. The annual net N mineralization rate and nitrification rate (kg N·ha−1·year−1) were within the ranges of 66.05–84.01 and 56.26–77.61 in the UPF and −17.22–72.24 and 23.98–98.74 in the BAF, respectively. In the BAF, which were assumed as N-rich conditions, the net N mineralization rate was suppressed under NH4+ accumulated soils and was independent from soil temperature. On the other hand, in the UPF, which represent moderately fertile N conditions, net N transformation rates and N availability were dependent to the generally known regulation by soil temperature and soil water content. Stand density might indirectly affect the N transformations, N availability, and ecosystem productivity through different soil moisture conditions. The differing patterns of different inorganic N indices provide useful insight into the N availability in each forest and potential applicability of ion exchange resin assay. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alnus japonica; ion exchange resin; nitrogen mineralization; Pinus densiflora; soil moisture Alnus japonica; ion exchange resin; nitrogen mineralization; Pinus densiflora; soil moisture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoon, T.K.; Noh, N.J.; Chung, H.; Yang, A.-R.; Son, Y. Soil Nitrogen Transformations and Availability in Upland Pine and Bottomland Alder Forests. Forests 2015, 6, 2941-2958.

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