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Forests 2015, 6(8), 2836-2852; doi:10.3390/f6082836

Assessing Douglas-Fir Seedling Establishment Using Two Modified Forestry Reclamation Approaches in the Pacific Northwest

1
School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA
2
Gonzaga University School of Law, 721 North Cincinnati Street, Spokane, WA 99202, USA
3
Arid Lands Resource Sciences, Graduate Interdisciplinary Program, University of Arizona, 1604 East Lowell Street, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric J. Jokela
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [808 KB, uploaded 24 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

The Forestry Reclamation Approach uses uncompacted, mounded spoils to reforest mined-land and has been successful in hardwood forests in the Appalachian region. A surface coalmine reclamation site in the Pacific Northwest was used to compare the site’s standard reclamation approach (Reference) with a modified version of the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) along with a modified FRA treatment that also incorporated an amendment of bottom ash from the coal burning power plant on-site (FRA + Ash). Survival and growth were followed for three growing seasons in bareroot and container Douglas-fir seedlings. Soil characteristics and understory cover were also assessed. Considerable variation in microsite characteristics was observed in the study area. Container seedlings did not improve survival compared to bareroot seedlings. In the soil reclamation treatments, seedling survival was significantly higher in FRA + Ash treatments compared to FRA and Reference treatments at the end of the second growing season. Survival declined in each year of the study, but the order of treatment effectiveness did not change. Relativized growth increment was significantly higher in the FRA treatment compared to both the Reference and FRA + Ash treatments during the third growing season. Understory cover was established after three years, but varied substantially across the study area. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil reclamation; seedling survival; ash amendment soil reclamation; seedling survival; ash amendment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Miller, C.; King, G.; Liu, Y.; Harrison, R.; Turnblom, E.; Zabowski, D. Assessing Douglas-Fir Seedling Establishment Using Two Modified Forestry Reclamation Approaches in the Pacific Northwest. Forests 2015, 6, 2836-2852.

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