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Forests 2015, 6(12), 4451-4461; doi:10.3390/f6124379

Tree Species Establishment in Urban Forest in Relation to Vegetation Composition, Tree Canopy Gap Area and Soil Factors

1
Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, Jelgavas iela 1, Riga LV 1004, Latvia
2
Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia, Jelgavas iela 1, Riga LV 1004, Latvia
3
Forest Faculty, Latvia University of Agriculture, Akademijas iela 11, Jelgava LV 3001, Latvia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Reynaldo Campos Santana and Eric J. Jokela
Received: 28 August 2015 / Revised: 1 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
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Abstract

The study of density and growth of pine, birch and oak seedlings and saplings in canopy gaps in the urban boreal forest in Riga, Latvia, indicates that natural regeneration can increase diversity in small gaps caused by tree mortality, and can ensure conversion from even-aged pine forest. Abundant regeneration in small gaps showed that light (gap area) was only one of the factors affecting tree regeneration in the gaps. The depth of the O layer and pH were suggested to be important factors for the establishment and growth of pine and birch. For oak, the main factors for establishment and growth were favorable moisture, higher pH and N concentration. Knowledge of ecological factors affecting the establishment of seedlings and growth of saplings of the most common trees species in the urban boreal forest is needed to predict successional trajectories and to aid management. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban forest; canopy gaps; vegetation composition; soil factors urban forest; canopy gaps; vegetation composition; soil factors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jankovska, I.; Brūmelis, G.; Nikodemus, O.; Kasparinskis, R.; Amatniece, V.; Straupmanis, G. Tree Species Establishment in Urban Forest in Relation to Vegetation Composition, Tree Canopy Gap Area and Soil Factors. Forests 2015, 6, 4451-4461.

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