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Forests 2015, 6(11), 4212-4227; doi:10.3390/f6114212

Distributions and Losses of Logging Residues at Clear-Felled Areas during Extraction for Bioenergy: Comparing Dried- and Fresh-Stacked Method

Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnaeus University, SE-351 95 Växjö, Sweden
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robert Harrison and Eric J. Jokela
Received: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
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Abstract

It is well known that a large proportion of available logging residues intended for extraction will not reach the energy-conversion industry, because some are lost during transportation or left on the clear-felled area. However, there is little understanding of where logging residue losses occur in the supply chain. In this study, the distribution of logging residues for two methods (dried- and fresh-stacked method) to extract logging residues were studied in one clear-felled area. In addition, residue fractions were examined in a detailed comparison. Even though the fresh-stacked method left somewhat more logging residues at the clear-felled area, the differences are small between the methods. Approximately 30% of the total amount of logging residues was left behind between the harvester heaps, with an additional 10%–15% under these heaps and approximately 2%–3% beneath the windrows. The final product that was delivered to the energy-conversion industry was very similar, regardless of the extraction method used. The delivered chipped logging residues had moisture contents of 37% and 36% following fresh- and dried-stacked methods respectively, and in both cases the needle content in the processed logging residues was approximately 10%. However, the total amount of fine fractions (needles and fines) was slightly higher following dried-stacking. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest fuel; storage; quality; needles; moisture content; Norway spruce forest fuel; storage; quality; needles; moisture content; Norway spruce
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nilsson, B.; Nilsson, D.; Thörnqvist, T. Distributions and Losses of Logging Residues at Clear-Felled Areas during Extraction for Bioenergy: Comparing Dried- and Fresh-Stacked Method. Forests 2015, 6, 4212-4227.

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