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Forests 2014, 5(6), 1143-1162; doi:10.3390/f5061143

Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

1,* , 2
1 Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, P.O. Box 88, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands 2 Tropenbos International, P.O. Box 494, Balikpapan 76100, East Kalimantan, Indonesia 3 Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
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Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.
Keywords: forest; landscape; restoration; governance; stakeholders; institutions; institutional space; institutional bricolage forest; landscape; restoration; governance; stakeholders; institutions; institutional space; institutional bricolage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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van Oosten, C.; Gunarso, P.; Koesoetjahjo, I.; Wiersum, F. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia. Forests 2014, 5, 1143-1162.

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