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Forests 2014, 5(10), 2440-2463; doi:10.3390/f5102440

Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

1
Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, 114 James Hall, Durham, NH 03824, USA
2
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 28 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
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Abstract

Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed QuercusPinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Operophtera brumata; dendroecology; Quercus; exotic species; invasive species; site index Operophtera brumata; dendroecology; Quercus; exotic species; invasive species; site index
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Simmons, M.J.; Lee, T.D.; Ducey, M.J.; Dodds, K.J. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality. Forests 2014, 5, 2440-2463.

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