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Forests 2011, 2(4), 1013-1030; doi:10.3390/f2041013
Article

Structure and Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii Natural Forests: A Basic Knowledge for Adaptive Management in a Changing Climate

1,*  and 2
Received: 12 September 2011; in revised form: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 2 December 2011 / Published: 9 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Climate Change)
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Abstract: Since climate change projections contain many uncertainties and are normally unable to predict the direction and magnitude of change at the small scale needed by forest managers, some understanding about the functioning of the target forest should be obtained before a robust management strategy can be applied. Structure and regeneration patterns are related to key ecosystem processes which, on the other hand, can be modified by silvicultural treatments. In this research, the structure and recruitment dynamics of two stands with different histories of management were investigated in the southern limit of the range of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii (Southeast Spain). We described forest structure and facilitation effects by forest canopies and nurse shrubs, and quantified the processes affecting each stage of regeneration (dispersed seed, first year seedling and second year seedling) in different microhabitats. Forest structure was more complex in the stand scarcely influenced by human activities. Juniperus communis shrubs seemed to facilitate the establishment of tree saplings. Most seedlings died of desiccation during their first summer. At best, 190 out of 10,000 emerged seedlings survived the first summer. In light of these results, the possibilities of applying close-to-nature forestry in the study forests and other aspects of silviculture under a frame of adaptive forest management are discussed.
Keywords: Mediterranean ecosystems; forest structure; recruitment dynamics; plant demography; transition probability; facilitation; close-to-nature forestry Mediterranean ecosystems; forest structure; recruitment dynamics; plant demography; transition probability; facilitation; close-to-nature forestry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tíscar, P.A.; Linares, J.C. Structure and Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii Natural Forests: A Basic Knowledge for Adaptive Management in a Changing Climate. Forests 2011, 2, 1013-1030.

AMA Style

Tíscar PA, Linares JC. Structure and Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii Natural Forests: A Basic Knowledge for Adaptive Management in a Changing Climate. Forests. 2011; 2(4):1013-1030.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tíscar, Pedro A.; Linares, Juan C. 2011. "Structure and Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii Natural Forests: A Basic Knowledge for Adaptive Management in a Changing Climate." Forests 2, no. 4: 1013-1030.


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